Oligo-anovulation are diagnosed in approximately 20% of women who visit an infertility clinic. Particularly, 90% of these women who present oligo-anovulation are composed of group A and group B women with polycystic ovary syndrome. Group C women are usually ovulatory. However, a small number of women in group C may be anovulatory ,even they have regular periods.
Polycystic ovary syndrome is basically a genetic disorder which is usually expressed by changes in eating behaviour and life style. Therefore, being pregnant and giving a birth does not have any effect on signs and symptoms of polycystic ovary syndrome. Usually, same symptoms and signs reappear after giving birth.
Women with polycystic ovary syndrome are at increased risk for abortion (miscarriage), particularly early pregnancy loss. In addition, obesity and insulin resistance (hyperinsulinemia) are conditions which increase the risk of early pregnancy loss independently of polycystic ovary syndrome. Obese women with polycystic ovary syndrome who have insulin resistance have the highest risk of early pregnancy loss.
The risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus is already higher in women with polycystic ovary syndrome compared to normal population independently of obesity. But, particularly, obese women with polycystic ovary syndrome who have insulin resistance or glucose intolerance have the highest risk of gestational diabetes mellitus, when they have been pregnant. Thus, these women should begin to lose weight and be treated to decrease excessive weight and insulin resistance a few months before being pregnant. In addition, glucose intolerance and gestational diabetes should be carefully investigated during pregnancy of these women.